Jimmy Carter mediated the negotiations between Sadat and Begin that resulted in the Camp David Accords September 17, , a preliminary peace agreement between Egypt and Israel. Sadat and Begin were awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in , and their continued political negotiations resulted in the signing on March 26, , of a treaty of peace between Egypt and Israel—the first between the latter and any Arab country. In September he ordered a massive police strike against his opponents, jailing more than 1, people from across the political spectrum. You are using an outdated browser.
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Anwar Sadat. Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Read More on This Topic. Nasser died on September 28, , and was succeeded by his vice president, Sadat, himself a Free Officer. Sadat wrote, began ''a relationship of mutual understanding culminating and crystallizing in what we came to describe as a 'peace process. Kissinger was able to work out a disengagement agreement between Egypt and Israel that allowed the Egyptians to take back a strip of Sinai. Sadat welcomed American participation and said later, ''No one else except the United States can play this role of mediator between two sides that harbor intense hate for one another - a gulf of bad blood, violence and massacres.
The agreement, signed in January , was followed by months of ''shuttle diplomacy'' by Mr. Kissinger and by a second limited Egyptian-Israeli accord in September Efforts toward a more comprehensive peace agreement bore no fruit in the next months, however, although the United States and the Soviet Union agreed on Oct. Syria continued to resist such a conference. Need for a New Approach. At t hat point Mr. Sadat, not wanting to let Moscow and Damascus determine the pace of events, decided that a new approach was needed.
Disregarding objections from his advi sers, he made the trip to Jerusalem. He told the Israeli Parliment t hat Egypt's willingness to ''welcome you among us'' amounted to ''a d ecisive historical change,'' but he continued to insist that the Israelis withdraw from occupied Arab land and recognize what he call ed the rights of the Palestinians.
He claimed a new-found friendsh ip with Mr.
Begin and set in motion the first high-level Egyptian-I sraeli peace talks. When Mr. Sadat returned to Cairo, he told his people that ''all barriers of doubt, mistrust and fear were shattered. Sadat denouncing the Israelis as stiff-necked. That deadlock prevailed until Mr. Sadat met with Mr. Two weeks of talks produced signed agreements on what was called ''a framework for peace. After further efforts Mr. Carter flew to Jerusalem and then to Cairo on March 13, , with compromise proposals to break yet another deadlock, and Mr. Sadat approved them quickly in a meeting at a Cairo airport.
Later that month Mr. Begin signed the treaty, ending 30 years of Egyptian-Israeli confrontation. Sadat said, paraphrasing the Prophet Isaiah, ''until the day comes when they beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks. In the hard-line Arab protest against the treaty, 17 Arab nations adopted political and economic sanctions against his Government.
Yet his isolation in the Arab world did not undercut his domestic support; he deftly reaped political profit from the isolation by underscoring the idea, widespread in Egypt, that other Arabs had grown wealthy while the Egyptians had borne the burden of the four wars.
In Search of Identity
Economy Displayed Strength. His popularity benefited also from the fairly strong condition of the economy, which had seemed on the brink of disaster after Egypt's catastrophic defeat in the war. President Sadat's relations with the Americans and the Israelis, despite some intense friction, remained relatively harmonious in the months after the signing of the treaty. That good will paid off when, as a gesture of friendship, Mr.
Begin fulfilled one provision of the treaty ahead of time, returning a square-mile tract of Sinai to Egypt on Nov. Yet no real progress was made in months of Egyptian-Israeli negotiations on home rule for the Palestinians in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Sadat held inconclusive talks with Mr. Begin at Aswan, in upper Egypt. Israeli forces withdrew from more of Sinai, leaving two-thirds of the area evacuated.
The Israeli-Egyptian border was declared open, and the two countries exchanged ambassadors. In March Mr. Sadat drew new criticism at home and in unfriendly Arab capitals when the deposed Shah of Iran, who was ill, moved to Cairo, accepting a longstanding invitation. As the new decade got under way, President Sadat seemed confident of his policies, but events seemed to have taken a somewhat unfavorable turn.
Cairo's isolation in the Arab world and elsewhere in the third world was galling, and the almost total reliance on Washington for food, aid and weapons was a source of concern. Inflation was running at a rate of 30 percent a year, there were signs of increasing repression, and Israel's policy of multiplying settlements on the occupied West Bank intensified pessimism. From there he denounced the Israeli policy as ''unfounded, ill-conceived and illegal.
In the final months of Mr. Sadat's life, as his intricate and sometimes stormy dialogue with Israel continued, there were repeated expressions of internal opposition to his rule. They continued, and mounted, despite his general popularity and his continued use of such means as government food-subsidies to dampen disconent.
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Sadat's policies toward Israel. Saad Eddin el-Shazli, and 18 other Egyptian dissidents living abroad had plotted to overthrow Mr.
And the head of the Egyptian Bar Association complained that Mr. Sadat's regime was trying to dismember the as sociation's leadership because it had opposed the peace treaty with Israel. Yet Mr. Sadat continued to give much of his attention to foreign affairs. In June he met inconclusively with Mr. Begin, for the first time in 17 months. In the meeting in an abandoned restaurant at Sharm el Sheik in Sinai, the Israeli leader rejected Mr.
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Sadat's appeal to halt Israeli attacks on Palestinian guerrilla bases in Lebanon. Denounced Bombing of Iraq. A few days later Mr. Sadat was denouncing Israel for its bombing of an Iraqi nuclear reactor, which he called an ''unlawful, provocative'' act. It was embarrassing to him because Mr. Begin had told him nothing about it. On Aug. Sadat held friendly but inconclusive talks with President Reagan in Washington. And on Aug. Begin met yet again, this time in the Egyptian port of Alexandria, to try to resolve problems that had delayed normalization of relations.
In Search of Identity: An Autobiography | Foreign Affairs
But then Mr. Sadat turned his full attention to internal affairs, evidently acting in response to information about the extent of dissidence in his perennially unstable land. Citing Moslem and other opposition to his regime, he departed markedly from the largely velvet-glove treatment of opponents that had characterized his 11 years of rule.
He cracked down hard, detaining 1, opponents, mostly Moslem militants, partly in response to bloody rioting in June between Moslems and members of Egypt's Coptic Christian minority. After a hastily called referendum, his Government reported that Moslem dissidents resented the rapprochement with Israel and wanted a more Islamic cast to Egypt's government. At a news conference Sept. Sadat made a wry reference to his country's heritage of violence and to the opposition to his rule.
To a foreign reporter who asked an impertinent question, he said, ''In other times I would have shot you, but it is democracy I am really suffering from as much as I am suffering from the opposition. Also last month Mr. Sadat accused a dozen former Egyptian officials of ''conniving'' with t he Soviet Union to destabilize his Government.